Earlier this month I spoke at the International Computer Science Festival in Krakow. Krakow is a beautiful city with several universities, and it is becoming a high tech center, with branches of companies like IBM and Google. The CS festival draws well over a thousand participants; the whole thing is organized by students. While much of the program was in Polish, there were quite a few talks in English.
Among these was Chad Fowler’s talk on Ruby. Chad is a very good speaker, who did an excellent job of conveying the sense of working in a dynamic language like Ruby. Almost everything he said would apply to Smalltalk as well.
One of the points that came up was the custom, prevalent in Ruby and in Smalltalk, of extending existing classes with new methods in the service of some other application or library. Such methods are often referred to as extension methods in Smalltalk, and the practice is supported by tools such as the Monticello source control system.
As an example, I’ll use my parser combinator library, which I’ve described in previous posts. To define a production for an if statement, you might write:
if:: tokenFromSymbol: #if.
then:: tokenFromSymbol: #then.
ifStat:: if, expression, then, statement.
assuming that productions for expression and statement already exist. The purpose of the rules if and then is to produce a tokenizing parser that accepts the symbols #if and #then respectively. It might be nicer to just write:
ifStat:: #if, expression, #then, statement.
and have the system figure out that, in this context, you want to denote a parser for a symbol by the symbol directly, much as you would when writing the BNF.
One way of achieving this would be to actually go and add the necessary methods to the class Symbol, so that symbols could behave like parsers. I know otherwise intelligent people who are prepared to argue for this approach. As I said, Smalltalkers would call these additions extension methods, but I find the more informal term monkey patching conveys a better intuition.
Typically, one wants to deliver a set of such methods as a unit, to be installed when a certain class or library gets loaded. So these changes are often provided as a patch that is applied dynamically. Not a problem in Smalltalk or Ruby or Python (though I gathered from the Pythoners in Krakow that they, to their credit, frown on the practice).
Apparently, there is a need to explain why monkey patching is a really bad idea. For starters, the methods in one monkey’s patch might conflict with those in some other monkey’s patch. In our example, the sequencing operator for parsers conflicts with that for symbols.
A mere flesh wound, says our programming primate: I usually don’t get conflicts, so I’ll pretend they won’t happen. The thing is, as thing scale up, rare occurrences get more frequent, and the costs can be very high.
Another problem is API bloat. You can see this in Squeak images, where a lot of monkeying about has taken place over the years. Classes like Object and String are polluted with dozens of methods contributed by enterprising individuals who felt that their favorite convenience method is something the whole world needs to benefit from.
Even in your own code, one needs to exercise restraint lest your API becomes obese with convenience methods. Big APIs eat up memory for both people and machinery, reducing responsiveness as well as learnability.
Then there is the small matter of security. If you are free to patch the definition of a class like String (typically on the fly when their code gets loaded), what’s to stop malicious macaques from replacing critical methods with really damaging stuff?
The counter argument is that in many cases (though not in this example), the patch is designed to avoid the use of typecase/switch/instance-of constructs, which bring their own set of evils to the table.
Extractors are a new approach to pattern matching developed by Martin Odersky for Scala. They overcome the usual difficulty with pattern matching, which is that it violates encapsulation by exposing the implementation type of data, just like instance-of. It may be part of the answer here as well.
However, many monkey patches are motivated by a desire for syntactic sugar, as the example shows. Extractors won’t help here.
A variety of language constructs have been devised to deal with this and related situations. Class boxes and selector namespaces in Smalltalk dialects, context oriented programming in Lisp and Smalltalk, static extension methods in C# and even Haskell type classes are related. These mechanisms don’t all provide the same functionality of course. I confess that I find none of them attractive. Each comes at a price that is too high for what it provides.
For example, C# extension methods rely on mandatory typing. Furthermore, they would not address the example above, because we need the literal symbols we use in the grammar to behave like parsers when passed into the parser combinator library code, not just in the lexical scope of the grammar.
Haskell type classes are much better. They would work for this problem (and many others), but also rely crucially on mandatory typing.
Class boxes are dynamic, but again only effect the immediate lexical scope. The same is true of simple formulations of selector namespaces. Richer versions let you import the desired selectors elsewhere, but I find this gets rather baroque. I'm not sure how COP meshes with security; so far it seems too complex for me to consider.
I’ve contemplated a change to the Newspeak semantics that would accommodate the above example, but it hasn’t been implemented, and I have mixed feelings about it. If a literal like #if is interpreted as an invocation of a factory method on Symbol, then we can override Symbol so that it supports the parser combinators. This only effects symbols created in a given scope, but isn’t just syntactic sugar like the C# extension methods suggested above.
Of course, this can be horribly abused; one shudders to think what a band of baboons might make of the freedom to redefine the language’s literals. On the other hand, used judiciously, it is great for supporting domain specific languages.
So far, I have no firm conclusions about how to best address the problems monkey patching is trying to solve. I don’t deny that it is expedient and tempting. Much of the appeal of dynamic languages is of course the freedom to do such things. The contrast with a language like Java is instructive. Adding a method to String is pretty much impossible. One has to sacrifice one’s first-born to the gods of the JCP and wait seven years for them to decide whether to add the method or not. I’m not endorsing that model either: I know it only too well.
Regardless, given my flattering portrayals of primate practices, you may deduce that my main comment on monkey patching is “just say no”. The problems it induces far outweigh its benefits. If you feel tempted, think hard about design alternatives. One can do better.
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